File Management dan File Linux Permission

Kali ini saya akan membahas mengenai manajemen  fille dan file linux permission. Masih adakah yang bingung mengapa bahkan file pun harus di manaje? dan apa pengertian manajemen file sendiri?

Management file merupakan metode dan struktur data yang diguakan sistem operasi untuk mengatur dan mengorganisir file pada disk atau partisi.

Beberapa Command digunakan untuk memenej file di linux antara lain :

1. Melihat Daftar konten direktori

  • pwd : commad untuk melihat derektori yang di di gunakan
  • ls : perintah yang digunakan untuk melihat file yang ada dalam direktori
  • ls -l : memperlihatkan daftar file disertai dengan atribut seperti pemilik, permission, ukuran, dan tanggal modifikasi
  • ls -a : memperlihatkan daftar file dan file tersembunyi di dalam direktori sekarang tanpa atribut apapun
  • ls -lt : berfungsi mengurutkan daftar file berdasarkan waktu (baik yang terbaru maupun terlama)
  • ls -ls : berfungsi mengurutkan daftar file berdasarkan ukuran file (Dari besar hingga terkecil)
  • ls -lrt : berfungsi mengurutkan daftar file dari yang terlama hingga yang terbaru

2. menyalin, memindahkan , dan menghapus file dan direktori

  • cp      : command untuk menyalin file atau direktori
  • mv     :  command untk memindahkan file atau direktori
  • rm      : command untuk menghapus file atau direktori
  • touch : command untuk membuat file kosong

beberapa pilihan yang berguna untuk perintah cp dan mv:

  • -f atau –force : Memungkinkan cp untuk mencoba menghapus file yang sudah ada walaupun file tidak dapat ditulis
  • -i atau –interactive : Akan meminta konfirmasi sebelum mencoba untuk mengganti file yang ada
  • -b atau –backup : Akan membuat cadangan dari file yang akan diganti

3.Membuat dan menghapus Direktori

  • mkdir -p d1/d2/d3  berfungsi untuk membuat direktori bersarang
  • rmdir -p d1/d2/d3 : menghapus direktori bersarang
  • rm -r d1 : menghapus secara rekursif

4. menggunakan perintah “find” untuk mencari berdasaikan file

“find” peintah untuk menemukan fila yang di cari

5. kompresi dan dekompresi file menggunakan gzip dan bzip2

dalam management file juga, kita membutuhkan file command untuk melakukan kompresi ata dekompresi file untuk memanagenen file agar lebih rapi dan, memperlebar ukuran penimpana, dalam linux di sini menggunapan gzip dan bzip2 untuk melakukan kompresi adan dekompresi, walaupun nyak command yang lain juga untuk kompresi. di sini saya akan menggunakan perintah di atas.

cara pemakaian untuk kompresi.

gzip (nama file atau derektori)

bzip2 (nama file atau direktori)

cara pemakaian untuk dekomprosi.

gzip –d (nama file kompresi).gz

bunzip2 (nama file kompresi).bz2

File Permission

file permission adalah ijin penggunaan sebuat file di sistem operasi linux dimana memberikan batasan, kepada user lain agar keamanan file terjamin. di butuhkan file permission di kerenakan dalam sistem operasi linux itu terkenal multi user yang menyebabkan sebuah file dapat di gunakan oleh user lain, dalam hal ini banyak user itu dalam satu komputer.

Permission Group

setiap file dan direktori memiliki 3 permission group :

1.user

hak akses user hanya berlaku terhadapr user sendiri dari file atau direktori, dimana hak akses dari ini tidak akan mengganggu user lain.

2. group

hak akses grup hanya berlakuk terhadapat group yang telah mejadi anggotanya dalam akses dari file dan dikrektori. dimana user yang tidak termasuk dalam grup tidak akan terpengaruh.

3.other

semua user yang tidak termasuk dalam group permission mendapat hak akses dari file tersebut.

 

permission type

setiap file dan direktori memiliki 3 permissio type:

– read – read permission menunjukan bahwa user dapat membaca konten dari file.

– write – write permmission menunjukah bahwa user dapat menulis konten dari file dan direktori

– execute – excute permission menjukan bahwa user dapat mengeeksekusi sebuah file untuk melihat konten di dalamnya.

 

Melihat hak akses

kamu dapat melihat hak akses sebuah file dan direktori dengan meggunakan terminal dalam linux yang saya gunakan. degan memasukan command “ls –l” dan akan menampilakan

_rwxrwxrwxrwx (angka) user group “keteranga lain”

dalam digit pertamal dalam file permission dengan jenis-jenis sebagai berikut :

d = directory

– = regular file

l = symbolic link

s = unix domain socket

p = named pipe

c = character device file

b = block device file

dengan sisianya 9 digit dimana setiap 3 digit dari digit peraman membagi file permission tiap group, yaiut user, group, dan other, dengan masing-masing kepanjangan setiap simbol itu :

r = read permission

w= write permission

x = execete permission

– = no permission

 

mengatur hak akses

setelah melihat hak akses dari sebuah file dan direktori sekarang saat nya kita mengatur dari hak akses itu sendiri. dalam linux terdapat command chmod untuk megatur hak akses. dalam mengatur hak akses yang dapat merubahnya adalah user, root, dan group dari file atau direktori tersebut. dalam chmod terdapat mode simbolik dan numerik

mode simbolik :

berikut adalah urutan penggunaan dalam bentuk simbolik

chmod (user yang dirubah)(perintah)(hak akses yang diberikan) nama-file

 

dimana simbol yang di gunakan adalah sebagai berikut :

untuk user :

u  user

g  group

o  other

a  all

untuk perintah :

+  tambah hak akses

–  mengurangi hak akses

= mengatur hak akses sama dengan hak akses yang diberikan

untuk tipe hak akses :

r read

w write

x execute

 

berikut beberapa contohnya

chmod a=r file

hak akses file “file” menjadi –r—r—r–

chmod u+x file

hak akses file “file” menjadi –r-x-r—r–

chmod u-rx file

hak akses file “file menjadi —-r—r–

chmod ug+x file

hak akses file “file” menjadi —xr-xr–

chmod u+rw o+w file

hak akses file “file” menjadi –rwx-r-x-rw-

 

mode numerik

dalam mode numerik ini file pemission menngunakan angka sebagai wakil dari hak akssesnya :

4 =  read

2 = write

1 = excetu

0 = no permission

untuk pengguanbungan nya contohnya ingin bisa baca dan tulis dapat menabahkan nilai baca dan tulis jadi,

2+4 = 6, dimana 6 yaitu untuk hak akses baca dan tulis. untuk penggunaan nya seperti berikut

chmod (digit hak akses user)(digit hak akses group)(digit hak akses other) namafile

contoh nya

chmod 735 contoh

dimana hak akses untuk file contoh menjadti –rwx-wxr-x.

untuk lebih mudahnya, anggaplah kombinasi rwx sebagai bilangan biner, jika iya bernilai 1 dan tidak 0 maka :

0 —

1 –-x

2 –w-

3 –wx

4 r–

5 r-x

6 rw-

7 rwx

 

Mengubah kepemilikan fila atau direktori

untuk mengubah kepemilikan sebuah file atau direktori menggunakan comman chown, dengan cara sebagai berikut :

chown option pemilik_baru nama_file/direktori

 

contoh :

chown arum contoh

yang berarti file contoh menjadi di miliki oleharum.

 

Sekian.

 

Referensi :

manajemen file dan direktori.pdf dan Linux File Permissions.pdf oleh Tim Asisten Sistem Operasi 2013

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